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Dia do Café
(Coffee). The day was established in the Fifties of the past century, by the Brazilian Department of Industry and Commerce. However, according to ABIC (Associação Brasileira da Indústria de Café; Brazilian Associantion of Coffee Industry), the date was introduced in 2005. Other data of ‘Dia do Cafe’ are 14 April, 21 April, and 29 November.
Brazil is still world leader in coffee production. In total, more than 2 billion hectares in Brazil are used for coffee plantations. The production is about 2 billion kilos, worth about 2 billion euros. Minas Gerais is Brazilian market leader in coffee production (65 percent), followed by neighboring state of Espírito Santo. The origin of coffee culture is attributable to the smuggle of a couple of coffee beans by a French-Brazilian nobleman, Francisco de Mello Palheta, in 1727. The nobleman had a secret relationship with the wife of the Governor of Cayenne (now French Guyana), and smuggled the beans in a vase that was destined to the Brazilian woman. Thanks to him, more than twenty million Brazilians work in the coffee sector. About 95% of the Brazilians older than 15 drink at least one cup of coffee per day.
Dia do Datilógrafo
(Dactylograph). The first dactylograph was already patented in 1714 by Henri Mill (USA). In 1869, the Remington typewriter was introduced, and many typewriters appeared in offices. These typewriters were succeeded by electronic typewriters, and by computers. A Brazilian also had contributed to the development of the typewriter. In 1861, father João Azevedo developed the so-called ‘Mechanograph’.
Dia do Vestibulando
(Candidate Student). Typical Brazil: vestibular are preparatory studies and exams for admittance to the university. These exams are held once a year; usually at the end of the calendar year. The exams is divided into two stages. The first stage consists of multiple choice questions about eight subjects: Portuguese, one foreign language (English, French, or Spanish), Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography, and History. The second stage is more specific to the discipline the students wants to study at the university. These exams contain open questions. The exams are considered as very tough: only the top ranking students are admitted.
Dia Nacional do Milho
(Corn). This day was established in 1965 (decreto 56,286), by the Brazilian Department of Agriculture. The exact date is established annually by the same Department. 24 May refers to the first Festa do Milho in Pato de Minas (MG) in 1959. Festas de Milho (Corn Parties) are accompanied by much folklore, parades and the election of the corn queen (Rainha do Milho). Around this time, corn is harvested in Brazil. In Brazil, about 18 kg of corn is consumed per capita, annually.
Dia da Infantaria do Exército
(Infantry). This day refers to the Battle of Tuiuti in Paraguay. The Tripe Alliance (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay) fought a bloody war against Paraguayan troops. The battle of Tuiuti resulted in nearly a thousand deaths at the allied side, and more than six thousand deaths at the Paraguayan side.
Dia do Radiotelegrafista / Dia do Telegrafista
(Telegraph / Telegrapher). This is one of the oldest commemorative data, established by the government: in 1944.
Dia Nacional do Detento
(Prisoner). On this day, attention is paid to prisoners who still have to endure harsh conditions in Brazilian prisons.
Death of Brazilian singer Carlos Galhardo
D. Pedro II liberated 70 slaves’ children at the Imperial Fazenda
Visit of D. pedro II to the city of Campo Largo – PR
Death of Bárbara Heliodora in Minas Gerais.
She was poet, heroin of the Inconfidência Mineira (Mineiro Conspiracy).
Batalha of Tuiuti
The battle – during the war between the Triple Alliance of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay against Paraguay – left 16 thousand people dead or seriously wounded.
Creation of Parque Nacional (National Park) do Caparaó (MG/ ES)
Imprisonment of bispo (religious leader) Edir Macedo
He was liberated on 4 June 1992.
By Adriano Antoine Robbesom