Alle Braziliaanse hoofdsteden:
Aracaju (SE), Belém (PA), Belo Horizonte (MG), Boa Vista (RR), Brasília (DF), Campo Grande (MS), Cuiabá (MT), Curitiba (PR), Florianópolis (SC), Fortaleza (CE), Goiânia (GO), João Pessoa (PB), Macapá (AP), Maceió (AL), Manaus (AM), Natal (RN), Palmas (TO), Porto Alegre (RS), Porto Velho (RO), Recife (PE), Rio Branco (AC), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Salvador (BA), São Luís (MA), São Paulo (SP), Teresina (PI), Vitória (ES)
Rio Branco werd gesticht langs de oevers van de Acrerivier. De stad is verdeeld in twee districten (Primeiro and Segundo Distrito) langs de oevers; zes bruggen verbinden de districten met elkaar. Rio Branco wordt omgeven door het Amazonewoud, maar kent verbindingswegen met andere steden in Brazilië, en met de buurlanden Peru en Bolivia.
(Nederlandse vertaling in voorbereiding)
Rio Branco is capital of the state of Acre. The state of Acre is surrounded by the Brazilian state of Amazonas and the neighboring countries Bolivia and Peru. It is the largest city of Acre, with 305 thousand inhabitants (IBGE, 2009), hosting more than half of the state population. Rio Branco is situated at 153 m, and lies within an area of 9233 square kilometers. The human development index of Rio Branco is 0.754 (IBGE/PNAD,2000), well below of that of the cities in the southeastern part of Brazil. The city calls itself ‘Capital de Natureza’ (City of Nature), referring to the surrounding Amazon Forest.
In 1882, rubber planters were exploring the margins of the Acre River for new plantations. A gameleira, a kind of ficus, drew attention on the planters, and it was Neutel Maia, from the state of Ceará, who founded the settlement, according the stories. The new rubber plantation was called Volta de Empresa, close to the gameleira, who still is there. Nowadays it is part of the Second District. At that time this region was occupied by the indian tribes of the Aquiris, Canamaris, and the Maneteris. At the other – left – margin of the Acre River, Maia founded the Empresa Plantation. Nowadays it is occupied by the Palácio do Governo do Acre, the governor’s palace. At that time the region was part of Bolivia.
Twenty years later, in 1899, the Brazilian occupants iniciated revolts against the Bolivian government, in order to free Acre from Bolivia, as an independent territory, only recognized by neighboring Brazil. Initially The Bolivian government managed to control the revolt, but the second upsurge became a victory for the revolutionaries. The treaty of Petropolis ended the conflict, with Bolivia ceding Acre to Brazil, in exchange for a huge sum of money, and the construction of a connective railway between the two countries. In 1904 the settlement was renamed into Rio Branco (litt. ‘White River’), referring to José Maria da Silva Paranhos Júnior, better know as Baron Rio Branco. As a secretary for Foreign Affairs, the baron was responsible for the Treaty of Petropolis. The city was completely isolated, until the construction of telegraph lines in 1913. In 1920, Rio Branco became the capital of the then Territory of Acre, which turned into a Brazilian state in 1962.
The economic activity in Rio Branco exists mainly of services, followed by industrial activities, and to a lesser extent, agriculture. Main products are wood, poultry, and wood products. The share of the Acrean economic activity is about 0.2 percent of the Brazilian economic activity.
What to see
The gameleira tree, that drew attention to the first settlers, and who witnessed the two battles for Acrean independence, is still alive, and now is a central point in the city. The principal historic building is the Palácio Rio Branco, constructed in 1930. This former governmental palace, based on the classic Greek ionic style, has turned into a museum. The catedral – Nossa Senhora do Nazaré – was inaugurated in 1959. The giant construction is based upon the basilic Roman style, and consists of three separate naves. In the twenties of the past century, the Mercado Velho (‘Old Market’) emerged at the left margin of the Acre River. Part of the recently renovated Mercado still exhibits bazars, bars, and stands that exist for more than forty years. A silent witness of the battles is the Igejinha do Ferro (‘Iron Church’), that is made of galvanized laminates that were built by German engineers. One of the six connecting bridges is the Passarela Joaquim Macedo. This recently renovated bridge now has colored illimination that attracts many visitors at night. A large municipal park of 17 hectares is located 3 km from the center: Horto Florestal.
Ten km from Rio Branco is the Praia do Amapá, a 500 m beach of clear white sands, flanked by foliated trees. During July and August, a number of music festivals take place there. The state of Acre exhibits a national park, Serra do Divisor, of about 8400 square kilometers, in the far west, at the Peruvian border.This park consists of pristine Amazon forest, but is not publicly acessible, mainly because of the lack of infrastructure.
Rio Branco, Acre
Rio Branco – Acre
Rio Branco (Acre)
Rio Branco – Acrean Territory (1949) 1/3
Rio Branco – Acrean Territory (1949) 2/3
Rio Branco – Acrean Territory (1949) 3/3
Hymn of the state of Acre
Acre – Centenary of the Revolution (2003)
© Adriano Antoine Robbesom 2011, 2017