Alle Braziliaanse hoofdsteden:
Aracaju (SE), Belém (PA), Belo Horizonte (MG), Boa Vista (RR), Brasília (DF), Campo Grande (MS), Cuiabá (MT), Curitiba (PR), Florianópolis (SC), Fortaleza (CE), Goiânia (GO), João Pessoa (PB), Macapá (AP), Maceió (AL), Manaus (AM), Natal (RN), Palmas (TO), Porto Alegre (RS), Porto Velho (RO), Recife (PE), Rio Branco (AC), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Salvador (BA), São Luís (MA), São Paulo (SP), Teresina (PI), Vitória (ES)
De voormalige Braziliaanse hoofdstad Rio de Janeiro trekt veel toeristen uit Brazilië zelf en uit alle windstreken van de wereld om het heden en het verleden van de stad te bezoeken: de vele monumenten uit de koloniale en imperiale tijd, de beroemde stranden van Copacabana en Ipanema, het carnaval en de samba. In Rio de Janeiro worden in 2013 (Confederatiebeker), 2014 (Wereldbeker) en 2015 (Copa América) belangrijke voetbalwedstrijden gespeeld, en Rio is Olympische Stad in 2016.
(Vertaling in het Nederlands in voorbereiding)
Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro that was formed after the merger of the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro in 1975. The city is with its 6.1 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2009), the second-largest of Brazil, after São Paulo. The metropolitan area counts about 12.4 million people. The city is situated between sea level and an altitude of 380 meter, and counts 1182 square kilometers. The human development index of Rio de Janeiro is 0.842 (PNAD/IBGE, 2000). Rio is often called ‘Cidade Maravilhosa’, the Marvelous City.
On the first day of 1502, the Portuguese expedition commanded by Gaspar de Lemos arrived in the Guanabara Bay. Since he mistakenly was thinking that the bay was the mouth of a river, he baptized the location Rio de Janeiro. By that time the area was inhabited by the Tupi, Maxakalí, Botocudo, and Puri indian tribes. In 1555, A French expedition commanded by Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, landed on a small island in the Guanabara Bay and founded the French colony Antarctique Française, French Antartica, Forte Coligny, and the city Henriville.
A Portugese military expedition commanded by Estácio de Sá ousted the French, and founded the city of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro on March 1, 1565. This date is considered as the founding date of the city. Until early 18th century the city had to endure various attacks from mainly French and Dutch pirates and buccaneers. Bandeirantes (pioneers) exploring more land inward, discovered precious metals and stones, that made Rio a more practical port to export the wealthy goods. For that reason, the capital from colonial Brazil changed from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro in 1763.
In 1807, when the French emperor Napoleon invaded Spain and threatened to invade Portugal, the entire Portuguese Royal Family moved to Brazil, escorted by the British navy. Crown prince Dom João VI, who was governing the Portuguese kingdom as a regent for his insaned mother, elevated Brazil as a kingdom in 1815, and Rio became capital of it. In 1821, Dom João and moest of his family returned to Portugal. His oldest son, Dom Pedro stayed and later refused to leave Brazil. He declared Brazil independent, Rio became the capital of the Brazilian empire. When Brazil became a republic in 1889, Rio continued as capital. In 1960, Rio lost its status of Brazil’s capital to the newly-built city: Brasília. Rio will become capital of World Soccer in 2014 and of the Olympic Movement in 2016.
Economically, Rio de Janeiro is the second largest of Brazil, after São Paulo, providing a little more than five percent of the nation’s GDP. Services account for 66 percent, tax collection for 23 %, and industrial activity for 11 %. In the recent years, the economy leading heavily on industries as shipbuilding, metallurgy, oil refinery, has transformed to an economy that focuses more on businesses and services. The city hosts headquarters of many large Brazilian and international multinationals, such as Petrobrás, Vale, Embratel, Coca Cola, IBM, and Shell. Rio is the 2nd riched city in Brazil, and the 30th richest in the world.
What to see
Many tourists visit Rio for its famous and abundant Carnival festivities. Samba schools compete with each other during the parades at the Sambódromo Marquês de Sapucaí. Outside the Sambódromo, one can enjoy the Carnival on the streets, where many so-called blocos (carnival percussion groups) have their parades, followed by a huge crowd of dancing and partying people. When searching for some rest, one may visit the world famous beaches of Copacabana, Ipanema, Leblon, Barra de Tijuca, that are lining the Atlantic Ocean. Inward the Guanabara Bay, one may go to the beaches of Botafogo and Flamengo. Speaking of Flamengo, the soccer team plays its games in the giant Maracanã soccer stadium. The team of Botafogo plays in the Engenhão, also known as Estádio João Havelange, where the 2016 Olympic Games will start.
To have an encounter with the rich past of Rio, the historic center is worth visiting. The narrow alleys, the cozy restaurants and bars, as in Arco do Teles. Praça XV de Novembro exhibits an important party of the history with the Paco Imperial, the statues of Dom João VI and General Osório, war hero of the Paraguayan War. Close to this square is Palácio Tiradentes, a palace in the typical eclectic style where Brazilian freedom fighter Tiradents was imprisoned for three years before condemned to death by hanging. Rio also has various churches, like the Igreja da Candelária, Igreja da NS do Carmo, Igreja da ORdem Terceira do Carmo, and the modern Catedral São Sebastião, also called the Metropolitan Cathedral. This huge conic structure is close to the Lapa District, where one may find an interesting mix of bars and nightclubs, representing samba, hiphop, reggae, and electronic music styles. In the center of Lapa is a ceramic stairway, consisting of tiles from all corners of the world. towards the Santa Tereza District, the Escada de Selarón, named after the Chilean artist. Instead of climbing the stairs, one may take the antique tram to Santa Tereza, that runs over the arcs of the aquaduct of Lapa. Speaking of climbing, there are two interesting options. One is the cable car to Pão de Açúcar, the Sugarloaf Rock. From there one may enjoy breathtaking views of the entire Guanabara bay and a major part of the city. The second option is the climb of the world famous Corcovado, with the Cristo Redentor (Christ the Redeemer) on top of it. The climb can be made by train, van or even walking. From the 710 meter high mountain one has an unforgettable view of entire Rio de Janeiro.
Rio is also known for its cultural richness and diversity. The city hosts many museums and cultural centers. Museums that exhibit the history of Rio, contemporary artworks, the indigenous tribes, the naval history (with a boat tour along the entire Guanabara Bay), the history of carnival.
The beauty of nature can be encountered in the well-known Botanical Garden, founded shortly after the arrival of the Portuguese Royal Family, with its static imperial palm trees, the Japanese garden, and a variety of Brazilian vegetation types. Rio boasts to have the world’s largest urban park within its city limits: the Tijuca park, in which the Corcovado Mountain is situated.
Outside Rio de Janeiro, the imperial city of Petrópolis, the historical city of Paraty, and the beach resorts of Angra dos Reis, Búzios, and Cabo Frio are most visited.
Click here for the Official Rio Guide, for more – actual – tourist information, where a PDF guide may be downloaded.
Rio in just one minute
There exists only one Rio
Rio de Janeiro
Rio – Cristo Redentor
Rio: Contrasts & Clichés 1/2
Rio: Contrasts & Clichés 2/2
Rio – World Cup Soccer 2014
Beaches of Búzios (RJ)
Beaches of Cabo Frio (RJ)
By Dr. Adriano Antoine Robbesom
Original text: Dutch, translated with help of Google Translator